Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) have been persecuted in the United States since the arrival of the Europeans. By the 20th century, they had been brought to near extinction. Narrow restriction of the board by the protections of endangered species and reintroduction into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in the 1990s, are one of the greatest conservation success stories in North America.
The recovery of the wolf has had a huge cultural resonance. Most Americans love the wolves. Gas station t-shirts and tchotchkes featuring the spices have become an American kitsch outfit — a testament to our collective love for these charismatic canines.
However, antipathy persists in some neighborhoods. Now, state legislation threatens the Population of the northern mountain ranges, concentrated in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming with a smaller number spread across California, Colorado, Oregon, Washington and Utah.
Motivated by animals and hunting to great hunting interests, Idaho and Montana have recently enacted a series of new laws that allow aggressive wolf hunting. Proponents erroneously claim that predators threaten farmers ’livelihoods and cause havoc to moose herds.
“[People] I don’t understand the truth of what wolves do. It’s not his fault. The university and the media have brainwashed him on so many levels, ”insists Steve Alder, Idaho’s executive director for Wildlife, a controversial hunting advocacy organization.
Conservatives argue that this kind of antagonism is rooted in a superstition, ideological aversion to wolves that does not correspond to the reality of its impact. The data strongly indicate that complaints from hunting and agricultural interest groups are exaggerated.
Predation on livestock by wolves is relatively low and the elk population is stable. In Idaho, between July 2019 and July 2020, there were only 102 the confirmed cattle kill, with 28 most considered probable. Montana has seen it 238 confirmed killings by 2020. Both states welcome millions of cows, sheep and other ruminants, and compensate juveniles for each confirmed loss. Moose bands thrive, with surroundings 136,000 animals in Montana is 120,000 in Idaho. Most hunting districts meet or exceed their population targets.
“There is no data to suggest that conflicts exist at such a level that a massive massacre of gray wolves is indicated,” said ecologist Mike Phillips, who led the first efforts to reintroduce wolves to the National Park. Yellowstone and later served as a Democratic senator. for Montana. “They are ecologically illiterate.”
“Wolves have self-regulated their populations for millennia according to the availability of prey, habitat and competitors,” adds Michelle Lute, a conservation director with the Coyote Project, an organization that works to promote coexistence between man and wildlife. “We don’t need to manage them.”
Wolves in the Northern Rockies were removed from the Endangered Species list in 2008 and 2009 but these decisions were challenged, resulting in rebirth. “Every time they were eliminated, the states liberalized the killing of wolves,” Lute observed. Now, a decade after the final elimination in 2011 on a pilot for a budget bill, Idaho and Montana are stepping up their efforts to drastically kill the species. Lute and others monitoring the situation are concerned that new draconian laws will reverse decades of wolf population recovery.
In April, Montana’s SB 314 sets a goal of reducing the 800 to 1,200 wolves in the state to just 15 breeding pairs. The bill authorizes the unlimited taking of wolves under a license, the use of bait, and hunting on private land even at night with artificial light. Additional legislation allows u use of traps, widens the trap season for a month, and establishes a scheme for reimbursement of costs associated with wolf hunting — essentially legalizing reward hunting. A invoice to put wolves on the list of predators, which would allow hunting without a license, did not succeed, as it did another this would have increased the number of farmers in the Fish and Wildlife Commission, the body charged with regulating hunting in the State, and thus predisposing it in favor of agricultural interests.
In May, Idaho passed away an invoice which allows annual hunting of wolves on private property, with no bag limits, and the use of private contractors. Extreme methods such as tracking wolves using vehicles and dogs for all terrain and the use of traps and lures are now allowed. The bill also substantially increases funding for the state Wolf Wrestling Control Board, created in 2014. The Council plans to employ entrepreneurs in the offer to reduce about 1,500 animals in the state to just 150, the bare minimum allowed in its 2002 term. wolf management plan. These new laws take management out of the hands of wildlife agencies typically tasked with overseeing wolf hunting practices – it is now largely legislative rather than regulatory.
“Biologists and wildlife managers now have nothing to say as to how wolves should be hunted and trapped, even if these are the people nominated to make those decisions,” said Andrea Zaccardi, senior lawyer with the Center for Biological Diversity, which leads a coalition of environmental and animal welfare groups in opposition to the new laws.
Some of the legal hunting techniques in Montana and Idaho are typically limited to animals such as coyotes, foxes, and lynx – categorized as wild predators or furborers. These species do not allow the same protections as large game animals. Conservatives fear that this could incentivize the targeting of wolves in what are known as predator derbies or killing contests. Participants compete to determine who can kill the most, or the largest, animals, predators. In some cases, the animals were intentionally crossed by snowmobiles or ATVs. Idaho-sponsored wildlife competitions in 2013 and 2015 wolves targeted more than coyotes, even though no wolves were finally killed.
Even if these most extreme events are avoided, the planned decimation of wolf populations will almost certainly trigger a torrent of harmful effects. Wolves are an essential control for herbivorous populations, eliminating weak and diseased animals — probably minimizing them. chronic loss disease in elk and deer populations, for example. This is contrary to the false claims made by some major hunting organizations that wolves have negatively influenced the availability of deer and elk for hunters.
Michael Robinson, a former conservation advocate with the Center for Biological Diversity, thinks that perceptions of declining elk populations may be simply due to anecdotal evidence, with hunters not finding moose in some areas because they were simply moved rather than eaten by wolves.
Wolves have influenced moose movements, a phenomenon clearly illustrated in Yellowstone later reintroduced in 1995. Because the wolves kept the elk bands fleeing, the herbivores were not able to grease willows, cottonwoods, and poplar trees along the strips. This allowed the plants to rebound, attracting beavers, which in turn altered the course of watercourses by building dams and helping to slow down erosion. Thus, too, the reduction of coyotes by wolves and the food provided by the remains of their prey allowed the return of other small species of predators. While some parts of the park have not recovered as well as others, wolf biologist and conservationist David Parsons said the effects were clearly significant to the ecosystem.
All of this could be in jeopardy if plans to dramatically reduce the wolf population materialize. According to one annual report produced by the Yellowstone Wolf Project, four of the park’s wolves were killed in Montana and Idaho during the 2019 hunting season as they roamed outside the park’s borders. With the park’s population around 100, even a relatively small number of wolf victims could have destabilizing effects.
The killing of a wolf can decrease the chances of its pack members surviving, especially since hunting during the breeding season is now allowed, which makes it likely that the puppies will be orphaned. And, ironically, packs of destabilized wolves are more likely to target second-hand cattle some studies. Removal of dominant wolves allows reproduction by subdominant pairs that can turn into cattle as easy prey.
Advocates hope to challenge the legislation before they feel its impacts. In May, the Center for Biological Diversity and its partners sent one petition to the Secretary of the Interior and the Fish and Wildlife Service requesting that the population of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf beetle be listed as threatened or endangered. They also informed the Fish and Wildlife Service that Idaho and Montana should no longer be eligible for funding in the Pittman-Robertson act, which directs millions of dollars in federal funds to wildlife management at the state level.
“This statute states that if they do something contrary to the conservation purposes of the act, they will not be eligible for funding,” said Zaccardi, who works at the campaign.
The evolution in Idaho and Montana comes on the heels of another equally devastating decision. In November 2020, the Trump administration has eliminated the protections of endangered species for the population of the Great Wolf Lakes in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin.
An aggressive legal campaign by a hunting group led to wolf hunt sent by the State in Wisconsin this February. The hunt wiped out a fifth of the state’s wolf population in a few days, killing them almost 100 more wolves than the quota set by the state. A process presented by a coalition of defense organizations in January seeking to restore protections. Kristen Boyles, Earthjustice’s lawyer, said she hopes the case is heard in the fall. Meanwhile, she and her colleagues are defending attempts by the National Rifles Association and the Safari Club to get the process dismissed.
About 1.8 million comments on the Great Lakes hunting decision underscore public opposition. The majority of Idaho residents who commented on the new laws of their states were against them. A were public comment on Montana legislation is scheduled for June 30.
“We need to listen to our citizens who say‘ we appreciate them intrinsically. ’They have the right to live beyond their use to others,” Lute said. The fate of the species also once again depends on the strength of this belief.
Richard Pallardy is a Chicago-based writer who has written for publications such as Discover, Vice, and Science Magazine.